LABORATORY OF INNOVATIVE MATERIALS AND ELEMENTS
In situ doping and surface modification of carbon materials, with particular emphasis on nano-diamond layers
Chemical Vapor Deposition
The primary technology of diamond growth in LIME which overcome equilibrium limitation and allow to strictly control processes. AX 5200S SEKI Co.
Physical Vapor Deposition
Technology that enables the creation of multi-layered structures with metals. PVD 75 System Kurt Lesker Co.
The furnace with SiC rod heating (RHTC 80-450 with vacuum flanges, Nabertherm) is used for high-temperature annealing of the diamond particles. Thermal treatment of the nanodiamonds is an indispensable element of many processes of functionalization (e.g., oxidation, carboxylation).
Measuring resistivity of created materials. LNP96 COOLING System with Keithley laboratory multimeter.
Inert gas atmosphere in isolated environment allows us to work with highly reactive substances. MBraun 200B Glove Chamber
High energy ball mill
The ball mill (Pulverisette 7 classic line, Fritsch) enables to crush diamonds into powders with a final fineness below 1 μm as a result of collision with grinding balls. Wet grinding in a suitably reactive solvent might allow for a simultaneous disaggregation and functionalization of the diamond particles.
The ultrasonic homogenizer (Sonopuls HD 4200, Bandelin) is used for disaggregation of the diamond particles with high-performance, 20kHz ultrasound. Depending on the choice of the solvent and additional, chemically active compounds, the process of decreasing the size of the diamond particles may be paired with their functionalization. The refrigerated – heating circulator (CORIO CP-200F, Julabo) is used to control the temperature throughout disaggregation of the diamond particles. Avoids the effect of overheating and excessive evaporation of the solvent.particles may be paired with their functionalization. The refrigerated – heating circulator (CORIO CP-200F, Julabo) is used to control the temperature throughout disaggregation of the diamond particles. Avoids the effect of overheating and excessive evaporation of the solvent.
The plasma cleaner (ZEPTO, diener) enables cleaning and termination of diamond surfaces. The 2.6 liter chamber allows for oxygen modification of the diamond surface. The generated plasma RF (13.56 MHz) changes the hydrophobicity of the diamonds and sterilizes them.
The particle analyser (Zetasizer Nano ZS, Malvern Panalytical) utilizes optical measurement techniques based on light scattering to measure a size distribution (in a range of 0.3 nm to 10 µm), and a zeta potential (in a range of -500 mV to 500 mV) of the diamond particles suspended in liquids. Both quantities are crucial in production, disaggregation, and functionalization of the nanodiamonds. The measurement of the size distribution enables to quickly control parameters and verify results of the ball milling and/or the ultrasonic treatment, while the value of the zeta potential indicates the colloidal stability of the particles in a specific dispersion medium, and provides better understanding of the processes of charge transfer occurring due to the modification of the nanodiamonds’ surface.